The EU-Russia Archive 

Co-operation between the European Union and Russia in the Security Domain

A. Official Documents and Declarations 
     I. Background
     II. Areas of co-operation
     III. Other issues relevant to security
B. Speeches
C. Research Studies 
D. Parliamentary Reports 
E. Basic Policy Documents of the Russian Federation 



A. Official Documents and Declarations

I. Background 

The legal framework for co-operation between the European Union and Russia was established with the signing of the Agreement on Partnership and Co-operation in 1994, which entered into force on 1 December 1997. While this Treaty has a clear focus on economic affairs, Title II of the Partnership and Co-operation Agreement includes a provision on political dialogue which also comprises the security field. See also institutional provisions of  Title XI

The next major step was the adoption of the Common Strategy of the EU on Russia (in the following referred to as 'the Common Strategy') in the course of the Cologne Summit meeting on 4. June 1999. The first "Common Strategy" adopted under the provisions on the Common Foreign and Security Policy enshrined in Title V of the Amsterdam Treaty, it sets out the objectives that shall govern both the Community's and the individual member states' policies towards this country. This framework document comprises actions in the economic field through the TACIS (Technical Assistance to the Commonwealth of Independent States) programme as well as in the political domain.

Since the adoption of the Common Strategy, every EU Presidency has presented a work plan for its implementation. The work plans available to the public are the following: 

Until the work plan of the Finnish Presidencies is made public, references in the work programme of the Finnish Presidency  can give an idea of its contents. 
The current Swedish Presidency has declared the relations with Russia a priority issue. Click here for the references to Russia in the general Work programme of the Swedish Presidency of 14 December 2000, which singles out five key areas: 

                                         - support for civil society and free opinion forming 
                                         - the environment and nuclear safety/waste 
                                         - the fight against organised crime 
                                         - cooperation in the area of disarmament and non-proliferation 
                                         - integration of Russia into the world economy 

Equally, a Council report on the implementation of the Common Strategy has been attached to each Presidency Conclusion adopted since the Cologne Summit. Click here for the Report on the Implementation of the Common Strategy on Russia adopted at the Gotheborg Summit. Click here for the Report presented by the Swedish Presidency.

The Council also adopted a follow up Report on the Northern Dimension.

Although the Belgian Presidency of the Council has not made public its Action Plan yet, its general Work Programme states that  special attention will be given -among other things- to "the consequences of the enlargement of the Union, in particular for the region of Kaliningrad, to the development of a European security and defence policy, as well as to questions in connection with justice and internal affairs." With regard to the political dialogue, the Work Programme announces that "the stabilisation of  the situation in the Caucasus and the strengthening of the rule of law" will be discussed at the next EU-Russia Summit in October. 

Click here for the passages referring to Russia of the Commission's Work programme for 2001 and in the Commission's Strategic Objectives for 2000-2005. Further, the Commission issued the Country Strategy Paper 2002-2006 and the National Indicative Programme 2002-2003 on 27 December 2001. The Country Strategy Paper (CSP) provides the strategic framework for European Community assistance to Russia, the National Indicative Programme further details the objectives of the CSP.

In order to provide some feed-back to the Union, the Russian Government responded to the Common Strategy with the Medium-term Strategy for Development of Relations between the Russian Federation and the European Union (in the following referred to as 'the Medium-term Strategy'), which outlines its view on the shaping of their mutual relations. 
Click here for references to the EU in the Foreign Policy Concept of the Russian Federation, 28 June 2000. 

The PCA establishes that meetings between Russia and the EU should take place regularly. At the Finnish initiative, it was decided that they could also be held in a EU-Russia-US format. 

EU-Russia Summit meeting declarations- please note that the first five Summit meetings did not produce a declaration: 

Meetings of the EU-Russia Co-operation Council: 

See also: 
II. Areas of Co-operation 

A statement by the EU on the entry into force of the PCA outlines the two main strands of co-operation: internal assistance to Russia and coordination of policies on the European continent. Since the adoption of the Common strategy, relevant initiatives in the security field taken by the EU can be ascribed to both strands: 

Strand 1: Assistance to Russia

1. Non-Proliferation and Disarmament 

The EU has been very active in supporting the implementation of arms control agreements. 

The Swedish Presidency has held a Conference on Non-Prioliferation with Russia. Click here for the Summary on Conference on Nonproliferation and Russia, 9 March 2001. 

2. 'Northern Dimension' and EU Enlargement 

The Northern Dimension aims to intensify regional cross border co-operation between the most northern members of the EU and its neighbouring countries with a view to enlargement. Co-operation within the Northern Dimension covers a wide range of fields such as environment, energy, infrastructure, business co-operation and Justice and Home Affairs and involves both EU members and applicants along with Russia, Norway and Iceland. 

Click here for the decisions regarding the Northern Dimension since the Luxembourg Presidency Conclusions of 12-13 December 1997. 

Specific areas of action: 

a) Nuclear safety and nuclear waste management 

See also:  Negotiations on a Multilateral Nuclear Environmental Programme for Russia (MNEPR) are currently ongoing. 

b) Kaliningrad 

Due to its geographic location amidst EU candidates, the impact that future enlargement of the Union to the Baltic region could have on the Kaliningrad exclave has been an issue of special concern to Russia. Preoccupations evidenced in the Medium-term Strategy were not related to security, though. Click here for the reference

In April 2001, the second Foreign Ministers' Conference on the Northern Dimension took place in order to take stock of achievements. Click here to see the Conference's Conclusions. Another meeting was held on 15 May 2002, especially concerning the issue of the enlargement and its implications for Kaliningrad
Click here for further documents on the Northern Dimension. 

Strand 2: Co-ordination of Policies on the European Continent

1. Participation of Russia in EU-led crisis management operations 

One of the most important issues in this relationship in the domain of security has been the modalities of participation of Russia in future crisis management operations led by the EU in the context of its emerging Common European Policy on Security and Defence. These modalities were agreed at the Nice Summit in December 2000.

2. Co-operation in civilian crisis management and conflict prevention 

Co-operation in the field of civilian crisis management is stil under consideration. Also, no co-operation in conflict prevention has been agreed on an EU - Russia basis so far. Certain references in the Common Strategy as well as in other follow-up documents seem to indicate that the latter might be delegated to the OSCE framework. In a Communication on Conflict Prevention recently tabled by the Commission, explicit reference to enhancing co-operation with Russia is made.

III. Other Issues relevant to security: 

Russia's behaviour in the Chechnya conflict as well as in its relations to the Southern Caucasus countries have met with severe condemnation by the EU and have manifestly constituted an impediment for the development of closer relations between both entities. 

1. Chechnya 

2. Southern Caucasus 

B. Speeches
Check here for the latest speeches and declarations on EU-Russia relations: 

C. Research Studies 

Check here for a selection of recent studies: 

D. Parliamentary Reports 

Check here for a selection of recent reports of (inter-)parliamentary bodies: 

E. Basic Policy Documents of the Russian Federation 
For useful web sites, check our main links menu. You will be able to find further information on security relations between Russia and the West in our NATO-Russia Archive


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